GAME HISTORY \ LANDLORD'S GAME - ELECTRIC GAME COMPANY RULES

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 THE LANDLORD'S GAME
PATENTED JAN 5, 1904.  NO 748628 BY LIZZIE J MAGIE.

E C O N O M I C  G A M E  C O,  N E W  Y O R K.

NOTE TO READERS: The origianl rule set was OCR scanned; however, I did not fully proof
them prior to posting. There are some spelling errors that need corrected. This will be corrected.
If you have questions about any errors you find please email me at

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TO BEGINNERS.
Read the rules carefully without trying to thoroughly understand them at first.Then, in order to save the time and avoid the confusion incident to the purchase of cards at the outset (See Rule I) let each player take one of the "average hands" indicated below, and $75 in cash. The purchasing of cards is quickly and easily done by those familiar with the game, but is apt to be a trifle confusing for beginners.
The game is not complicated, although at first it may appear so. On the contrary, it is very simple, which the players will readily see after having made a few moves. The principal thing each player has to do is to look after the collection of his rents, railroad fares and wages.

FOUR AVERAGE HANDS.
                                One.
                Beggarman's Court . . . . . . .  .50
                The Bowery. . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
                Wall Street. . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
                Royal Rusher R. R. . . . . . . . .50
                Gee Whiz R. R.  . . . . . . . . . .50
                                                                          _________
                                                         $325
                                Two.
                Boomtown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
                Fairhope Avenue. . . . . . . . . . 75
                Grand Boulevard. . . . . . . . . .100
                Shooting Star R. R. . . . . . . . .50
                Slambang Trolley. . . . . . . . . .50
                                                                          ________
                                                         $325
                                Three.
                Lonely Lane. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
                Goat Alley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
                Easy Street. . . . . . . . . . . . .100
                George Street. . . . . . . . . . . . 50
                P. D. Q. R. R . . . . . . . . . . . .50
                Speculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
                                                                        ________
                                                         $325
                                Four.
                The Pike. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
                Market Place. . . . . . . . . . . . 75
                Cottage Terrace. . . . . . . . . .100
                Broadway. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
                Fifth Avenue . . . . . . . . . . . 50
                                                                        ________
                                                        $325
 

THE LANDLORD'S GAME.

    The Landlord's Game may be played by two or more.
    Each player selects one checker, and, if there are two players, each provides himself with 
    $6oo; if three players, each $500; if four players, each $400.
    All money and implements not in use by the players should be put upon the large space in the 
    middle of the board, marked
    MISCELLANEOUS.
    Determine first player by throwing dice.
    NOTE: The Education and Professor cards are used only when the game is being played under the 
     Single Tax Rules.
THE OBJECT OF THE LANDLORD'S GAME.
  The object of the game is to get as much wealth as possible, and the player who has the most in cash, cards and houses at the end of the game is the winner or millionaire. Every card and every house counts the holder or owner 100 at the end of the game.
 
RULES.
  RULE 1.    Buying Titles to Lots. ---  Shuffle the green cards and deal out one around, to the left, until 24 have been dealt, then place the remainder of the pack on the board. These green cards represent Title Deeds to Lots, Charters for Franchises, and (one) Broker's License. The original sale price of each card is marked on the card itself as well as on the corresponding board space after the words "For Sale." Each player has the privilege or option of buying any or all of the cards which have been dealt to him, the sale price of the cards being paid into the PUBLIC TREASURY.  Cards not purchased must be returned to the pack.  The players own the spaces on the board corresponding to the cards they hold.  As one generally needs between $50 and $75 to pay expenses around the board, or until he has earned his wages, it is always advisable for him to take this into consideration when purchasing cards.
    After the game has begun the sale prices of all cards then in use by the players are regulated by the demand, but no card can be bought from the pack for less than the original sale price, although these cards may be bid up as high as the players please.
  RULE 2.    How to Move Checkers. ---    The players place their checkers upon MOTHER EARTH, the beginning point. Then the first player throws his dice, and, ac­cording to the number thrown, moves along the first side of the board and follows the rule applying to the space upon which he has stopped.
    Throwing Doubles --- See Rule 17.
    When the first player has finished his play, the next player throws his dice, and moves; then the third player, and so on.
    If a player is on any of the spaces between the Chances he may move in either direction. Bear this well in mind as it is sometimes more desirable to make a back­ward move than a forward one.
    NOTE: - The number of the rule applying to each space is printed in the corner or inside edge of that space.
    The numbers on the outside of the spaces are placed there for the convenience of the player in moving. For instance, if he throws a 6 he moves to the 6th space, THE PIKE.  If his next throw is an 8 he adds 6 and 8, which are 14, and moves to the 14th space, which is BEGGARMAN”S COURT, and so on adding or subtracting according to whether his move be forward or backward.
    RULE 3.  Wages. --- When a player reaches or passes the beginning point, MOTHER EARTH, he is supposed to have performed a certain amount of labor worth $100. This amount his "wages," is paid to him from MICELLANEOUS pile.
    In all money transactions between any individual player and the board, the next player to the left may act as representative for the board, paying wages, making change, etc., before such next player makes his own throw.
    RULE 4.  Taxes. -- the blue spaces; FOOD, FUEL, SHELTER, and CLOTHING, represent the absolute Necessities of life and window player stops upon one of these spaces he pays $10 taxes into PUBLIC TREASURY.
    RULE 5.  D. F. Hogg's Game Preserves and Lord Blueblood's Estaterepresent property held out of use, and when a player's move brings him upon one of these spaces he is "trespassing" and must go to JAIL -- that is, put his checker on the JAIL space.
    RULE 6.  Jail. --- A player in JAIL must remain there until next turn.  Then he may come out upon paying into the PUBLIC TREASURY a fine of $50, or if he throws a double (which is called "serving his time") he may come out without paying the fine.  If he does not pay the fine or throw a double he must wait until his next turn.  He cannot, however, miss more than three turns if he has sufficient property on which to realize the amount of his fine.  When he does come out of JAIL he must begin to count is move on the space immediately in front of the JAIL (Shelter).his
    RULE 7.  Land Rent. --- When a player stops upon a lot owned by another player, he must pay the land rent to the owner.  If he stops upon one of his own lots he pays nothing.  If the lot is not yet owned by any of the players, it is "For Sale" and the player stopping upon it may purchase it at the original sale price, provided no other player bids more for it.  If the player who has stopped upon it is willing to pay the highest price bid, he has the first option.  If he cannot or does not want to pay the highest price bid, then the player bidding the highest price must take the lot at the price he has bid for it.  If the first player does not by a lot and some other player does, the first player pays the land rent to the purchaser.  If no player buys it the land rent is paid into the PUBLIC TREASURY.  If the lot is thought the purchaser or takes the corresponding Title Deed card from the pack.
    RULE 8.  Speculation --- This space represents all speculation other than land speculation.  If a player's throw would bring him to this space he may refuse to move -- remaining where he is -- and the next player proceeds.  If he elects to play, the ownership of Speculation card for Broker's License is determined as are Title Deeds under Rule 7.  Ownership of card being settled, the player pays $10 "ante" into the MISCELLANEOUS pile; then he throws his dice again, and if he throws a double, he wins $100; an 11, $90; a 10, $80; 9, $70; 8, $60; 7, $50; 6, $40; 5, $30; and pays 10 percent of his winnings to holder of the Speculation card, or to MISCELLANEOUS pile if no one has purchased the card.  If a 3 or 4 is thrown the Broker is supposed to be caught in a "skin game," -- the speculator wins nothing and the Broker or holder of Speculation card (if it is held by any of the players) goes to JAIL and a card is returned to the pack.
    Winnings are taken from MISCELLANEOUS pile.
    RULE 9.  Franchises. --- The yellow spaces -- SOAKUM LIGHTING SYSTEM and SLAMBANG TROLLEY, and pink spaces: -- RAILROADS, represent public utilities owned by private parties.  When a player stops upon one of these franchise spaces he must pay $5 to the owner.  If the franchise is not yet owned by any of the players is for sale and the player stopping upon it may purchase it at the original sale price, $50, provided no other player bids more for it.  If the player stopping upon it is willing to pay the highest price bid, he has the first option.  If he cannot or does not want to pay the highest price bid, then the player bidding the highest price must take the franchise at the price he has bid.  If the first player does not buy the franchise and some other player does, the first player pays to the purchaser the amount the space calls for.  If no player buys it, the amount is paid into the PUBLIC TREASURY.  It is space is bought the purchaser takes the corresponding card from the pack and keeps it.
    MUNICIPAL CINCH -- If a player owns both SOAKUM LIGHTING SYSTEM and SLAMBANG TROLLEY he has a "municipal cinch," raises the rates, and collects $25 instead of $5 from every other player stopping upon one of these spaces.
    MONOPOLY.  --- If one player owns 2 railroads, he charges $10 fare; if 3, he charges $20; 4, $50.
    TRUST.  --- If two players owned all of the RAILROADS between them, they may at any time pool their railroad interests and form a Trust, charging the other players $40 for each RAILROAD space and dividing profits.
    RULE 10.  ---  CENTRAL PARK is supposed to be maintained by public funds, and therefore a player may stop in it without paying anything.
    RULE 11.  ---  Chances. --- If a player stops upon one of the CHANCE spaces he draws a card from the red pack and follows directions on same.  In each case the card drawn is returned to the pack.
    RULE 12. Poor House.  --- If at any time a player has not enough money to pay his expenses, and cannot borrow any (see Rule 16) or cannot sell or mortgage any of his property, he must go to the POOR HOUSE, where he remains until his next turn.  Then he throws again and moves out if he can afford to make the move.
    RULE 13.  Luxury.  --- If it player's throw brings him upon LUXURY, he pays $75 into the MISCELLANEOUS pile and draws a purple card.  This card, with the name of his luxury upon it, he keeps, and it counts him 100 at the end of the game.  He may, however, sell the card at any time if he so desires.
    The player may purchase the luxury or not, as he chooses or can afford, but if he does not purchase it he moves backward from the space last occupied by him.  Example: If he is on MADISON SQUARE and throws a 6 a forward move would take him to LUXURY.  If he has less than $75 he cannot afford the luxury (unless he borrows) and therefore he moves backward 6 spaces from MADISON SQUARE, which would take him to, SLAMBANG TROLLEY.  But whether his move be forward or backward he must pay whatever is called for by the space upon which he stops.
    RULE 14.  Improvements --- If a player so desires, and can afford it, he may, in his turn, improve any of his lots by the erection of a house thereon.  To do this he pays $100 into the MISCELLANEOUS pile and takes therefrom a house corresponding to the color of his checker, which house he places upon the lot he desires to improve.  One or more houses may be erected upon the same lot, the owner collecting $10 for each house, in addition to the land rent.
    RULE 15.  The checkers of two or more players may occupy the same space, each paying whatever the space calls for.
    RULE 16.  Borrowing ---  One player may borrow from another.  If demanded he must give the mortgage on his property or his wages, making the best bargain he can as to terms of repayment, rate of interest, etc.  These transactions must be kept track of by the players making them.  This can easily be done by making notes on a tablet.
    RULE 17.  Throwing Doubles. ---  If a player is in JAIL and throws a double he is supposed to have served his time and may come out without the payment of a fine.
Throwing a double also means getting an "official pass" on the railroad, and the player throwing it may jump the nine spaces between the next two corners.  If his count is exhausted, however, upon reaching or before reaching a corner, he cannot use his "pass."  If he does not choose to use his pass the need not do so, but simply moves straight a head without jumping any spaces.  Sometimes his pass may take him to JAIL or some high-priced or otherwise undesirable space, whereas his straight move may take him to a desirable one.  He may take his choice.
    A double, when a player is speculating, wins $100.
    RULE 18.  Emergencies ---  Should any emergency arise which is not covered by the foregoing rules, the matter must be settled among the players.  Players may do anything which suggests itself to them provided that what they do does not conflict with the rules, just as a person may be anything he pleases which does not violate the law.  He may squeeze to the utmost and the victim has no protection.
    RULE 19.  End of Game.  --- The game ends when one player has received his wages five times.
    Players may, however, prolong the game at their own pleasure, having no arbitrary stopping point and continuing the game until the convenience or the inclination of the players suggests a cessation.  Then they may agree to stop, say, at the next double thrown by any of the players.


SUGGESTIONS

    All cards in use by the players may be bought, sold, mortgage or traded at the pleasure of the players.  If one player has three railroads it is greatly to his advantage to own the 4th as he would then have the monopoly, and it is therefore sometimes advisable, according to the stage of the game, for him to offer even as high as $150 or more for it, although the card itself would count him only 100 at the end of a game.  In the same way, a player may seek to buy up all the lots in a certain locality, as the more he owns in a bunch the more chances he has of renting.  Or a player may, upon observing another player's object, try to forestall it by buying the certain desirable card thus keeping it out of his opponent's hand, or making the opponent pay dearly for it.
-- -- --

FOR ADVANCED AND SCIENTIFIC PLAYERS.

    When players have become thoroughly familiar with the rules and principles of the game they will readily perceive that if the game be continued long enough the inevitable result will be that one player will own everything on the board.  Under the ordinary rules, however, two or three sittings would probably be necessary to reach this end; therefore it is suggested that in order to arrive more quickly at a decisive point, the following rules be observed:
    When 10 houses have been erected -- whether by one or more players -- taxes (blue spaces) are doubled (20): when twenty-five houses have been erected taxes are again doubled ($40), which is the limit.
    Players will note that the railroads divide each side of the board into two sections, making eight sections on the entire board.  When all the lots in any one section have been improved with at least one house each the land rent on every lot in that section is doubled.  When the lots in any one section have been improved with two houses each the land rent is the end doubled; and three houses doubles it again.
   For purposes of the game the number of houses that may be erected on each lot is limited to three.  The house rent remains fast before -- $10 for each house in addition to the land rent.


TAX TABLE

 When number of Houses
on board is           Taxes are:
   10                         $20.
25 or more               40.
                                       LAND RENT TABLE
                            0 houses        1 houses        2 houses        3 houses
    Land Rent            $ 2.                $ 4.                $ 8.                $ 16.
        "    "                   4.                   8.                 16.                   32.
        "    "                   6.                 12.                 24.                   48.
        "    "                   8.                 16.                 32.                   64.
        "    "                 10.                 20.                 40.                   80.
        "    "                 12.                 24.                 48.                   96.
        "    "                 14.                 28.                 56.                 112.
        "    "                 16.                 32.                 64.                 128.
        "    "                 18.                 36.                 72.                 144.
        "    "                 20.                 40.                 80.                 160.
        "    "                 22.                 44.                 88.                 176.
THE MONARCH OF THE WORLD.
    The Landlord's Game is based on present prevailing business methods.  This the players can prove for themselves; and they can also prove what must be the logical outcome of such a system, i.e., that the land monopolist has absolute control of the situation.  If a person wishes to prove this assertion -- having first proven that the principles of the game are based on realities -- let him do so by giving to one player all of the land and giving to the other players all other advantages of the game.  Provide each player with $100 at the start and let the game proceed under the rules with the exception that the landlord gets no wages.  By this simple method one can satisfy himself of the truth of the assertion that the land monopolist is monarch of the world.  The remedy is the Single Tax.
THE SINGLE TAX.
    If the players wish to prove how the application of the Single Tax would benefit everybody by equalizing and opportunities and raising wages, they may at any time during the game put the single tax into operation by a vote of at least two of the players.
RULES.
Players were left in possession of their holdings and, with the exception that the Title Deeds are of no value, the gain goes on as before under the following rules:
    RULE 1.    Pay no taxes on Absolute Necessities.
    RULE 2.   All land rent is paid into the public treasury to be used for public improvements.  (Begin game under single tax with empty PUBLIC TREASURY.)
    RULE 3.    All railroad fares and franchise rates are paid to the individual owners as before until the public takes control of them (see Rule 6), when they are FREE.
    RULE 4.    When a player stops upon an unimproved lot (except Government Reservations, see following rule) he first pays the full land rent into PUBLIC TREASURY, and then, if he so desires and can afford it, he may improved the lot by erection of a house thereon.  But if the space upon which he has stopped is already improved by another player's house, he first pays the full land rent into the PUBLIC TREASURY and then pays the full house rent to the owner of the house.  If that anytime a player has money to invest, he may, in his turn, erect a house on any unimproved lot he chooses, whether his checker is on that space or not, provided no other player bids against him for the privilege of building there.
    The "bid" money (or rent) is paid into the PUBLIC TREASURY.
    RULE 5.    HOGG"S GAME PRESERVES and LORD BLUEBLOOD'S ESTATE are supposed to be reserved by the Government for Free College sites (see part c, Rule 6), and until the colleges are erected a player whose throw brings him upon one of the use spaces is trespassing and must go to JAIL.
    RULE 6.  (a) When the cash in the PUBLIC TREASURY from land rents and fines amounts to $50 it is paid to the holder of the SOAKUM LIGHTING SYSTEM charter for the purchase of the plant, which is then owned and operated by the public, (the change to public ownership being by condemnation, excluding value of right of way).  The card is returned to the pack, and henceforth the Lighting System space is free to all players.  If the card is still in the pack the $50 is paid into the MISCELLANEOUS pile.
    (b) When the cash in the PUBLIC TREASURY amounts to $50 more, go through the same process with SLAMBANG TROLLEY; then P.D.Q.R.R.; then GEE WIZZ R. R., and so on around the board until all the railroads are free.
    (c) Then when the cash in the PUBLIC TREASURY amounts to $50 more it is put into the MISCELLANEOUS pile from which a Free College is taken and placed on LORD BLUEBLOOD'S ESTATE and the jail penalty is annulled.
    (d) When the cash in the PUBLIC TREASURY amounts to $50 more it is transferred to the MISCELLANEOUS pile and WAGES ARE RAISED TO $110.  When the cash amounts to $50 more, wages are raised to $120, and so on, raising wages $10 for every $50 in the TREASURY, until the end of the game.
    RULE 7.    After the first FREE COLLEGE is erected, if a player goes to college he takes a blue card marked Education and when he gets four of these cards he exchanges them for a card marked Professor, which card counts him 100 at the end of the game.
    RULE 8.    Under the Single Tax the Poor House is eliminated because all players have access to land -- the natural opportunities to labor.    If a player cannot afford to make the move called for by his thrown, he puts his checker upon any NATURAL OPPORTUNITY space (inner corners) he may choose, back of the space to which is throw would bring him.  Then just before throwing in his next turn he takes from the MISCELLANEOUS pile the wages called for by the NATURAL OPPORTUNITY space upon which he has placed his checker, pays his rent for such space into the PUBLIC TREASURY, throws his dice, and moves out.  A player must make the move, if possible, even if it takes him to JAIL.
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